English Language Learner/Sheltered English Instruction Vocabulary
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS):
Also known as Conversational or Social Language. Everyday,
straightforward communication skills that are helped by contextual
support. The language ability required for verbal face-to-face
Bilingual Syntax Measure (BSM):
assessment used measure a student’s language dominance. This oral
assessment is generally administered at the time of a student’s
admission to Holyoke Public Schools and is used to determine a student’s
LAU category in combination with factors such as a student’s home
Biliteracy: The ability to read and write proficiently in two languages.
The ability to use any form of language appropriate to the demands of
social situations. The components of communicative competence include
linguistic knowledge, cultural knowledge, and interaction skills.
Dual Language Program : Also known as two-way or
developmental, the goal of these bilingual programs is for students to
develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction
in English and another language in a classroom that is usually comprised
of half native English speakers and half native speakers of the other
ELL : English language learner. A
national-origin-minority student who is limited-English-proficient.
This term is often preferred over limited-English-proficient (LEP) as it
highlights accomplishments rather than deficits. Massachusetts law
defines an English learner as a student who cannot perform ordinary
classwork in English.
English as a Second Language
(ESL) : A program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum
designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may
include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content
vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in
English with little use of native language.
English Language Learner (ELL):
An alternate term that is used to describe a limited English proficient
(LEP) student, which focuses on the development of the English language,
rather than viewing the native language as a deficit. Massachusetts law
interchangeably uses the term English learner in place of ELL.
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes (ELPBO):
A document designed by the Massachusetts Department of Education which
includes benchmarks and outcomes that outline the progress of an ELL
student as s/he acquires English proficiency in the four domains of
language. The benchmarks and outcomes are assessed annually using the
Massachusetts English Proficiency Assessment (MEPA) and bi-annually
using the Massachusetts English Language Assessment - Oral (MELA-O).
Formerly English Limited Proficient (FLEP):
A student who was formerly an LEP student who has a level of English
proficiency that approximates that of a native English speaking student.
Four Domains of Language: Comprehension (Listening), Production (Speaking), Reading, and Writing.
Informed Parental Consent : The permission of a parent to enroll their
child in an ELL program, or the refusal to allow their child to enroll
in such a program, after the parent is provided effective notice of the
educational options and the district's educational recommendation.
Home Language Survey: A survey
required by the Office of Civil Rights upon a student’s admission to a
public school to determine the predominant language spoken in the
Language-Cognitive Needs Profile:
A form in the cumulative folder of a student who has been identified as
an English language learner upon entry into the Holyoke Public Schools.
This profile is a record of initial and other assessment data, (BSM,
literacy, Lau category), English proficiency levels, and other language
related information. We are required to update it regularly.
Refers to the measurement of the degree of bilingualism, which implies a
comparison of the proficiencies in two or more languages.
Categories of Relative Proficiency defined by English and Spanish
Proficiency Levels and Equivalents 1975 Lau Categories: A: Mono-lingual
speaker of a language other than English; B; Predominantly speaks a
language other than English; C: Balanced Bilingual; D: Predominantly
speaks English; E: Monolingual speaker of English. A Lau category always
remains the same regardless of the student’s proficiency level in
English over time.
Limited English Proficient (LEP):
Individuals who, by foreign birth or ancestry, speak a language other
than English, and either understand and speak little or no English. (See
Language Proficiency : Refers to the degree to
which the student exhibits control over the use of language, including
the measurement of expressive and receptive language skills in the areas
of phonology, syntax, vocabulary, and semantics and including the areas
of pragmatics or language use within various domains or social
circumstances. Proficiency in a language is judged independently and
does not imply a lack of proficiency in another language.
Low Incidence Population (LIP):
Similar to LEP, except that the individual is not a member of the
dominant English learner group. In Holyoke, Spanish is the dominant
English learner group. Students whose first language is not Spanish are
considered LIP. They must receive structured English support.
Massachusetts English Language Assessment - Oral (MELA-O):
A bi-annual assessment designed to measure a student’s progress in
Listening (comprehension) and speaking (Production) based upon the
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes (ELPBO).
Massachusetts English Proficiency Assessment (MEPA):
An assessment designed to measure a student’s progress in reading and
writing based upon the English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
Native Language (L1): The first or initial language learned by a child.
Scaffolding: Scaffolding is an
interactive method of teaching and learning where the teacher provides a
temporary framework for the learner who is working just beyond his/her
independent capabilities (NTDE, 1995). It can and should occur in all
aspects of learning in order to assist students to achieve their
potential, and comprises the temporary guiding, modeling and cueing of
students. This is achieved by the teacher sharing the cognitive workload
to link the known to the unknown using the techniques of: cueing and
questioning, demonstrating and modeling, role and problem
identification, planning, monitoring, and evaluating
Through the teacher’s scaffolding students are
encouraged to assume increased responsibility for their learning. In
practical terms, scaffolding might include such things as: Having
concrete examples for reference, body language & gestures, language
accompanying action, building on to what students say, rephrasing,
guided questioning, charts and frameworks, picture cues, word lists,
negotiating texts before students write independently, and working from
oral to written.
Scaffolding reduces the possibility of the student making mistakes by doing the activity with the learner (Gray, 1990).
Second Language (L2): This term
is used in different, overlapping ways, and can mean: (1) the second
language learned (chronologically); (2) the weaker language; (3) a
language that is not the “mother tongue”; (4) the less used language;
(5) the target language. This term is sometimes used to describe third
and further languages.
Sheltered English Immersion (SEI):
An instructional approach used to make academic instruction in English
comprehensible to ELL students. In the sheltered classroom, teachers use
physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach
vocabulary for the concept development in mathematics, science, social
studies, and other subjects.
English Immersion Program : The goal of this program is acquisition of
English language skills so that the ELL student can succeed in an
English-only mainstream classroom. All instruction in an immersion
strategy program is in English. Teachers have specialized training in
meeting the needs of ELL students, possessing either a bilingual
education or ESL teaching credential and/or training, and strong
receptive skills in the students' primary language.
Submersion Program : A
submersion program places ELL students in a regular English-only program
with little or no support services on the theory that they will pick up
English naturally. This program should not be confused with a
structured English immersion program.
Transitional Bilingual Education Program :
This program, also known as
early-exit bilingual education, utilizes a student's primary language in
instruction. The program maintains and develops skills in the primary
language and culture while introducing, maintaining, and developing
skills in English. The primary purpose of a TBE program is to facilitate
the ELL student's transition to an all English instructional program
while receiving academic subject instruction in the native language to
the extent necessary.